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Kinh Nghiệm về The sociological Perspective Chapter 1 Notes 2022
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eChapter 1: The Sociological PerspectiveChapter SummarySociology offers a perspective, a view of the world. The sociological perspective opens a window intounfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look familiar worlds. Sociologists study the broader social contexts thatunderlie human behavior. These include
the social groups that influence human behavior and the largersociety that organizes it.The sociological perspective is an approach to understanding human behavior by placing it within its broadersocial context. C. Wright Mills referred to the sociological perspective as the intersection of biography (theindividual) and history (social factors
that influence the individual).Sociology is one of several disciplines referred to as a “social science.” As the term implies, social sciencesaddress the social world. The natural sciences, on the other hand, are the intellectual and academic disciplinesdesigned to explain and predict the events in the natural environment. The other social sciences
includeanthropology, economics, political science, and psychology.As a scientific discipline, sociology seeks to explain why something happens, attempts to make generalizationsthat can be applied to a broader group or situation, and predicts what will happen based on the knowledgereceived. Sociology specifically seeks to explain the causes of
human behavior and to recognize the patternsof human behavior. It also seeks to predict the future behavior of people. Although sociologists usually donot make decisions on how society should be changed or people treated, sociologists provide valuableresearch data that can be used by authorities who do make such decisions.Sociology grew out of
the social, political, economic, and technological revolutions of the eighteenth andnineteenth centuries. The Industrial Revolution, in particular, eroded old traditions and necessitated new waysof perceiving and examining the social world. With the success of the natural sciences serving as a model forthe social sciences, sociology emerged in Western Europe as a distinct discipline
in the mid-1800s.Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber were early thinkers in thedevelopment of sociology. The idea of applying the scientific method to the social world, known aspositivism, was first proposed by Auguste Comte. Based on this innovation and Comte’s effort to apply thescientific method to social
life, he is credited as being the founder of sociology. Herbert Spencer, one of themost dominant and influential English sociologists, is often called the “second founder of sociology.”Spencer’s concept of Social Darwinism suggested that societies evolve from primitive to civilized and that the“fittest” societies evolve and survive, while unfit societies become extinct.
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Although Americans enjoy much freedom of thought and action, society constrains their views and behaviors.The sociological perspective emphasizes that our social backgrounds influence our attitudes, behaviors, and life chances. The chances
of committing even an individual act such as suicide depend to some degree on the group backgrounds from which we come.Because sociology đơn hàng in generalizations and not laws, people don’t always behave and think in the patterns sociologists predict. For every sociological generalization, there are many exceptions.Personal experience, common sense, and the truyền thông are all valuable sources of knowledge about various aspects of society, but they often present a limited or distorted
view of these aspects.A theme of sociology is the debunking motif. This means that sociological knowledge aims to look beyond on-the-surface understandings of social reality.According to C. Wright Mills, the sociological imagination involves the ability to realize that personal troubles are rooted in problems in the larger social structure. The sociological imagination thus supports a blaming-the-system view over a blaming-the-victim view.Theoretical perspectives in
sociology generally divide into macro and micro views. Functionalism emphasizes the functions that social institutions serve to ensure the ongoing stability of society. Conflict theory focuses on the conflict among different racial, ethnic, social class, and other groups and emphasizes how social institutions help ensure inequality. Two micro perspectives, symbolic interactionism and utilitarianism or more commonly referred to as exchange theory, focus on interaction among individuals. Symbolic
interactionism focuses on how individuals interpret the meanings of the situations in which they find themselves, while utilitarianism emphasizes that people are guided in their actions by a desire to maximize their benefits and to minimize their disadvantages.Sociological research follows the scientific method. A major goal is to test hypotheses suggesting how an independent variable influences a dependent variable. Hypotheses can concern several units of analysis: the person, the
organization, and the geographical region.The major sources of information for sociological research are surveys, experiments, field research, and existing data. Surveys are the most common research method in sociology, but field research provides richer and more detailed information.To be sure that an independent variable affects a dependent variable, we must be certain that the two variables are statistically related, that the independent variable precedes the dependent
variable in time, and that the relationship between the two variables is not spurious.Several ethical standards guide sociological research. Among the most important of these are the rights to privacy and confidentiality and to freedom from harm. Some sociologists have risked imprisonment to protect these rights.
Imagine that you are the mayor of a city of about 100,000 residents. Similar to many other cities, yours has a mixture of rich and poor neighborhoods. Because you and one of your key advisers were sociology majors in college, you both remember that the type of
neighborhoods in which children grow up can influence many aspects of their development. Your adviser suggests that you seek a large federal grant to conduct a small field experiment to test the effects of neighborhoods in your city. In this experiment, 60 families from poor neighborhoods would be recruited to volunteer. Half of these families would be randomly selected to move to middle-class neighborhoods with their housing partially subsidized (the experimental group), and the other 30
families would remain where they are (the control group). A variety of data would then be gathered about the children in both groups of families over the next decade to determine whether living in middle-class neighborhoods improved the children’s cognitive and social development.
You recognize the potential value of this experiment, but you also wonder whether it is entirely ethical, as it would be virtually impossible to maintain the anonymity of the families in the experimental group
and perhaps even in the control group. You also worry about the political problems that might result if the people already in the middle-class neighborhoods object to the new families moving into their midst. Do you decide to apply for the federal grant? Why or why not?
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