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by Dino and Fifi

Nội dung chính Show

    Lizard Evolution Virtual LabWhich of the following is an example of an adaptation in anole lizards?Why are there so many species of anoles and how did they evolve?What does the evidence suggest regarding the evolution of body toàn thân types of anole lizards on the different islands?What type of anole lizards have short tails?

Our Study:
The topic of interest we identified for investigation is “How Lizards Evolved?” we were also interested in “Lizard Adaptations”.  We will study the evolution of Anole Lizards and then compare the  Plumed Basilisk Lizard to the closely related relative, the Smooth Helmeted Iguana.

Did you know…

    it is believed that lizards have
    been around for 200 million yearsthere is a Chameleon in Madagascar which is 1 inch longsome species of lizards can squirt blood from their eyes a distance of feetChameleons change colours to blend with their surroundingsome lizards even look like they have a third eye on their headThere are more than 5,600 different species of lizards

Anolis lizards
One of the first sites we found was
the Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab.
This study had to do with the work of biologist Jonathan Losos.  While working in the islands of the Caribbean, he discovered the traits that enable dozens of anole species to adapt to different vertical niches in the forest. Differences in limb length, body toàn thân shape, and toepad size allow different species to live and grow
and reproduce on the ground, on thin branches, or high in the canopy,

Grass / Bush AnoleTrunk / Ground Anole

Twig AnoleCanopy Anole

Below is a table showing how the specific traits of 4 different species of Anole Lizards allow them to live and reproduce in their preferred natural habitat.

NameHabitatLeg Length / Body / TailToe Padother infoGrass / Bush Anole
lives on grass and bushes
Very Long Tails and Slender Body

runs and jumps
Trunk / Ground Anole
lives on the ground
Stocky, Longer Legged
toe pads made for running on trunks
quite fast, runs
Twig Anole
lives on branches and twigs
Short legged
have small toe pads design for holding or hugging twigs
not as fast as other anoles
Canopy Anole
High up in the Canopy
Large in body toàn thân length
Very Large Toepads
have little hairs on their toe pads that cling or bond to the surface of large leaves in the canopy

An adaptation is a structure or function that is common in a population because it enhances the ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.

Can You Observe Body Traits in Anole Lizards Evolve?
What happens when you put Long Legged Tree
Anoles on islands with no trees?   
Dr. Losos’s conducted an  experiment, where he  took a pair of tree dwelling trunk anoles from a large island and relocated a male and a female to seven small islands that had been depleted of trees from a recently hurricane. The small islands have only small bushes and grass. These small experimental islands or laboratories lacked any lizards until the pair was place there.

Each year Dr. Losos returned to
the islands and collected data on the lizards.   Dr. Losos’s data suggest that after only a few generations, the lizards on the experimental islands developed shorter legs on average than the lizards on the larger island.  Based on the data collected from the experimental islands and the lizards that were placed on these islands,   the average leg length of the population had shorten in just 2 two generations. Over the next 4 years the trend continued showing that
evolution can occur very rapidly when natural selection is strong.

How did the four anole species come to be so different from one another?Reproductive Isolation and Speciation in LizardsHHMI BioInteractive Video   

For a species to be considered a new species they cannot breed with the old species, this is called reproductive isolation.  The scientist, Dr. Losos wondered what kept the 4 anoles from mating with eachother.  He discovered that anoles with different dewlaps stayed away from eachother.  Only anoles with the same colour dewlaps mated.

Male Carolina anole (left); male brown anole (right)
Rapid Evolution in Real Time by Science Daily. WIKIMEDIA, R. COLIN BLENIS (L), HANS HILLEWAERT (R)

Changes in other characteristic traits, such as their colourful dewlaps, have played a key role in reproductive isolation and the formation of new species.

Sources:
LIZARD EVOLUTION by BIO EXPEDITION

Lizard Evolution Virtual Lab

THIS IS
A PART OF The Origin of Species: Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree  https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/lizard-evolution-virtual-lab

NEXT we want to EXPLORE the Adaptations of the Plumed Basilisk  Lizard and compare them to a closely related the Smooth Helmeted Iguana 

Corytophanidae 
is the  family of iguanian lizards, the Plumed Basilisk belongs to.  This family is sometimes called the casquehead lizards or helmeted lizards.  The Smooth Helmeted Iguana belongs to the same family but has evolved very differently.

To begin with look how cool the Plumed Basilisk  Lizard is.

male plumed basiliskfemale plumed basilisk
these little guys can run really fast across the water to catch food.

SHUTTERSTOCK/JMIKS
HUTTERSTOCK/JCLARK511

The Smooth Helmeted Iguana is equally cool.

smooth helmetedsmooth helmeted
these little guys can change their
colouration to blend in to their enviroment.

SOURCES

Meet the Jesus Christ
Lizard
 by  National Geographic.

Plumed Basilisk Lizard Care Tips by Leo Spinner
://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Lizards/Plumed-Basilisk-Lizard-Care-Tips/

Plumed Basilisk
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumed_basilisk

Smooth Helmeted Iguana
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smooth_helmeted_iguana

Which of the following is an example of an adaptation in anole lizards?

The anole’s dewlap is an example of an adaptation. behavior is adaptive in a particular environment. BACKGROUND Anole lizards are a highly diverse group, with nearly 400 known species, of which around 150 are found in the Caribbean.

Why are there so many species of anoles and how did they evolve?

Why are there so many species of anoles? And how did they evolve? The reason behind the evolution of anoles is their adaption to the environment around them. With the vast amount of islands where the anoles exist, the lizards are prone to adapt to certain parts of the environment instead of itself in a whole.

What does the evidence suggest regarding the evolution of body toàn thân types of anole lizards on the different islands?

DNA evidence suggests that the different lizard body toàn thân types (twig, grass, etc.) evolved independently on each of the four large Caribbean islands. An anole lizard with a light-colored dewlap will develop a darker dewlap that stands out better in a bright environment.

What type of anole lizards have short tails?

Trunk anoles are found only on Cuba and Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles; however, the Hispaniolan species A. distichus is also native to the Bahamas and has introduced populations in Florida. Trunk anoles are mid-sized anoles with short limbs and tails and small, short triangular heads.
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