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  • Section 4: Sample Selected-Response Questions Bilingual Education Supplemental (164)
  • Domain I—Bilingual Education
  • Multiple-Competencies Passages
  • What is the teachers role in motivating students?
  • What is the role of motivation in engaging the learners in the teaching/learning process?
  • What is the role of motivation in education?

Section 4: Sample Selected-Response Questions Bilingual Education Supplemental (164)

Expand All Answers | Collapse All Answers

This section presents some sample exam questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the exam. To demonstrate how each
competency may be assessed, sample questions are accompanied by the competency that they measure. While studying, you may wish to read the competency before and after you consider each sample question. Please note that the competency statements do not appear on the actual exam.

For each sample exam question, there is a correct answer and a rationale for each answer option. The sample questions are included to illustrate the formats and types of questions you will see on the exam; however,
your performance on the sample questions should not be viewed as a predictor of your performance on the actual exam.

Domain I—Bilingual Education

Competency 001—The beginning Bilingual Education teacher understands the foundations of Bilingual Education and the concepts of bilingualism and biculturalism and applies this knowledge to create an effective learning environment for students in the Bilingual Education program.

1. The process in which members of
different cultural groups within the same society reciprocally adopt and appreciate the attitudes, values, and language patterns of each other is known as

  • assimilation.
  • acculturation.
  • transculturation.
  • ethnoconvergence.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B is correct because acculturation involves mutual respect and interchange among groups. Option A
    is incorrect
    because assimilation involves the minority group giving up their values and language to adopt those of the majority group. Option C is incorrect because transculturation involves small scale adoption of cultural values with very little visible impact. Option D is incorrect because ethnoconvergence involves people self-dividing themselves into smaller ethnic groups within a “superethnicity” such as a nationality.

    2. The
    bilingual education director for a school district meets with all the bilingual teachers and suggests that instruction should be interactive, student-centered, and anchored on the language and culture of the students’ home. Which of the following is the best rationale for the type of instruction described?

  • Relating instruction to the students’ cultural backgrounds promotes academic success
  • Cooperative learning improves students’ cognitive, academic, social, and affective
    growth
  • Instruction that promotes multicultural awareness develops students’ cross-cultural competency
  • Creating opportunities for students to receive instruction from fluent speakers of both students’ native language and English is directly related to student success
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Ais
    correctbecause the strategies described appropriately relate instruction to the students’ cultural background, including their native language, which will promote academic success. OptionB isincorrectbecause the strategies promoted by the director do not involve cooperative learning. Option
    Cisincorrectbecause to promote cross-cultural competency, instruction should include cultures represented outside of the class. OptionDisincorrectbecause, in the scenario presented, fluent speakers of L1 and L2 are not providing instruction.

    3. Given that English-language learners (ELLs) often differ in their culture and degree of English-language proficiency, which of the following types of program models would best ensure their academic success?

  • Programs that concentrate on English as a second language (ESL) instruction with an emphasis on the ELLs’ quick assimilation into the school culture
  • Programs that mainstream ELLs fully into grade-level classrooms in which the curricular standards are modified to
    their achievement level
  • Programs that address the ELLs’ needs by using a standards-based program in which content is taught in a comprehensible manner
  • Programs that are individualized to each ELL’s needs
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption C is correct because the most appropriate way to address the needs of ELLs is to use a standards-based program that makes content-based
    instruction comprehensible to them. OptionAisincorrectbecause quick assimilation into the school culture will not ensure academic success. OptionBisincorrectbecause the curricular standards should not be modified for ELLs; only
    instruction should be modified to accommodate their needs. OptionDisincorrectbecause program models are not modified for individual ELLs; only instruction is modified.

    4. In which of the following court cases did the United States Supreme Court rule that limited-English-proficient students should receive equal access to education under the Civil
    Rights Act?

  • Castañeda v. Pickard
  • Meyer v. Nebraska
  • Lau v. Nichols
  • Plyler v. Doe
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Ciscorrectbecause Lauv. Nichols
    determined that identical education does not constitute equal education under the Civil Rights Act by “merely providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teacher and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.” OptionAisincorrectbecause Castañedav.
    Pickarddetermined the criteria schools should use to educate students with limited English proficiency. OptionBisincorrectbecause Meyerv. Nebraskaoverturned the 1919 Nebraska statute claiming that “no person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private denominational, parochial or public school teach
    any subject to any person in any language.” OptionDisincorrectbecause in Plylerv. Doe, the court ruled that children could not be denied an education based on immigration status.

    5. Which of the following statements provides the best explanation for the improved academic performance that English-language learners (ELLs)
    experience in an additive educational program?

  • The use of English (L2) as conversational language is enforced in order to acquire L2 academic language
  • The exclusive use of primary language (L1) for language-arts instruction and L2 for other content instruction helps ELLs develop bilingual skills while avoiding language confusion
  • The dual-language environment requires ELLs to develop stronger study skills than their peers require in monolingual L2 classes
  • The
    continued development of ELLs’ L1 validates their L1 knowledge and facilitates the acquisition of their L2
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Discorrectbecause additive instruction includes continuing to build ELLs’ L1, hence facilitating the acquisition of their L2.
    OptionAisincorrectbecause, while L2 conversational language is important, L2 is not the focus in an additive educational program. OptionBisincorrectbecause additive educational programs use L1 across content-area instruction.
    OptionCisincorrectbecause a student’s study skills do not influence the effectiveness of an additive educational program.

    6. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in creating an environment that encourages the development of biliteracy and biculturalism?

  • Incorporating materials related to students’ home cultures and
    texts in students’ primary language throughout the curriculum
  • Building opportunities for English language and literacy development across all content curriculum
  • Hosting food and clothing days that feature the home cultures of students in a class and encouraging the students’ parents to participate
  • Decorating the classroom with student drawings based on stories from students’ home cultures and English
  • Enter to expand or collapse
    answer.
    Answer expanded
    Option D is correct because decorating the classroom with such drawings promotes biliteracy and biculturalism by incorporating both L1 and L2 literacy materials and celebrations of students’ personal reflections of their home cultures. OptionAisincorrectbecause incorporating texts in
    students’ primary language and cultures only promotes first language development. OptionBisincorrectbecause the building opportunities are only for English language development. OptionCisincorrectbecause while the events
    encourage culture, they lack a literacy focus.

    7. An administrator wants English-language learners (ELLs) to take standardized achievement tests of basic reading skills that have been directly translated from English into the ELLs’ native languages. Which of the following best explains why that approach is likely to yield inaccurate results?

  • A translated test will have slightly increased levels of validity and reliability but will not reduce student test anxiety
  • Translations provide students with a better understanding of the test content but fail to reveal the full extent of students’ English-language needs
  • A translated test may evaluate students’ intellectual capabilities but cannot measure students’ performance of specific skills
  • Translations change the language of a test but cannot eliminate cultural differences and discrepancies caused by translations
  • Enter to expand or collapse
    answer.
    Answer expanded
    Option Discorrectbecause, although the assessment is in the ELLs’ L1, a direct translation does not address cultural differences and, as a result, the assessment is not completely accessible to ELLs, which will yield inaccurate results. OptionsA,
    BandCareincorrectbecause a translated test in the ELLs’ native language does not increase the validity or reliability of the test (option A), give students a better understanding of the test content (option B) or evaluate students’ intellectual capabilities (option C). Therefore, the reasons listed do not explain why
    direct translations yield inaccurate results.

    8. A middle school bilingual teacher regularly includes news and magazine articles in the curriculum that focus on multinational organizations or businesses that highlight careers in which it is advantageous or essential to have knowledge of more than one language. A primary benefit of using such reading materials for English-language learners (ELLs) is that they allow ELLs to

  • identify the features of different types of
    bilingual communities and networks.
  • recognize the benefits of being bilingual and bicultural in a global society.
  • promote understanding of the circumstances that may have brought their families to the United States.
  • decide where they would like to live and work when they grow up.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B
    iscorrectbecause the teacher is exposing the students to the importance of being bilingual in a corporate world through news articles and magazines. OptionsA,CandDareincorrectbecause
    the articles may not necessarily provide information about bilingual communities and networks (option A), the circumstances that may have brought their families to the United States (option C) and where they would like to live and work when they grow up (option D). Therefore, the reasons listed do not describe the benefit of using the described reading materials.

    9. Ms. Liang’s lesson plans for her third-grade classroom include native language (L1) tư vấn for academic concepts,
    including vocabulary development and a basic interaction with new ideas. She wants to ensure that the English-language learners (ELLs) understand the lessons they will be studying in the upcoming week, particularly since most of the instruction is in English (L2). She continues to emphasize L2 language development throughout the day, but uses L1 to ensure that the ELLs do not fall behind in subject matter studies as they become more competent in L2. Ms. Liang’s planning indicates that she is
    working in which of the following special language programs?

  • Self-contained English as a Second Language (ESL)
  • Shared-teaching bilingual
  • Transitional or early-exit bilingual
  • Two-way bilingual or dual immersion
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption C is correct because a transitional or early-exit bilingual program emphasizes L2 development;
    however, the use of L1 ensures students will not fall behind when introducing academic concepts. OptionAisincorrectbecause ESL programs involve monolingual English instruction. OptionBisincorrectbecause the scenario does not
    mention a shared teaching setup which involves two teachers. OptionDisincorrectbecause dual immersion involves students from two different language groups which is not described in the scenario.

    Competency 002—The beginning Bilingual Education teacher understands processes of first- and second-language acquisition and
    development and applies this knowledge to promote students’ language proficiency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2).

    10. A third-grade bilingual teacher, Mr. Rivas, reads aloud a procedure for a student science investigation. After reading aloud the procedure, he notices that the students are confused about how to begin their investigation. Mr. Rivas then decides to repeat the procedure step-by-step, modifying the language used in the written instructions so that it is
    more comprehensible to the students. Which of the following does Mr. Rivas best demonstrate by modifying the lesson?

  • Scaffolding instructional technique
  • Reciprocal teaching instructional technique
  • Sheltered English instructional strategy
  • Concept attainment instructional strategy
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption C
    iscorrectbecause sheltered English instruction involves the modification and simplification of complex English structures in order for the language to be comprehensible for ELLs. OptionAisincorrectbecause the teacher modifies the language used in the written directions, but does not
    assist the students to complete the investigation. OptionBisincorrectbecause the scenario does not illustrate a dialogue between teachers and students for the purpose of jointly constructing the meaning of text. OptionDisincorrect
    because the scenario does not reflect students using categorization techniques to better understand concepts previously presented by the teacher.

    11. Which of the following tasks would require the greatest use of basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS)?

  • Completing an individual science fair project
  • Asking for directions to a location
  • Using a computer to construct a bar graph
  • Listening to a recorded class lecture
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Biscorrectbecause asking for directions involves orally communicating with another person using communication skills. OptionsA,Cand
    Dare incorrect because completing an academic project (option A), using the computer (option C) and listening to a recorded lecture (option D) are tasks that require the use of cognitive academic language which is Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).

    12. In contrast to an adult learner, an elementary student learning the structure of a second language is more likely to

  • depend on written representation of the second
    language.
  • apply the structure of the second language spontaneously.
  • memorize the grammatical rules of the second language.
  • compare the structures of the native and second languages consciously.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B is correct because elementary students are less self-conscious or aware of making mistakes and, therefore, will attempt speaking the second
    language more frequently than adult learners. OptionAisincorrectbecause elementary students will not depend on written representation since their written ability is more limited than an adult’s. OptionsCandD
    areincorrectbecause memorization of grammatical rules and consciously comparing the structure of the native and second languages are typical learning behaviors of adult learners, not elementary age students.

    13. During a social studies lesson, Mr. Donelli instructs the students in the class, including English-language learners (ELLs), to draw pictures that represent the meaning of vocabulary words they
    encounter during the lesson. Then he asks them to describe and explain the meaning of the pictures in pairs or small groups. Which of the following statements best reflects Mr. Donelli’s awareness of research-based second-language instruction for ELLs?

  • Exposure to various meaningful linguistic contexts is needed for second-language acquisition
  • Indirect instruction of content knowledge maximizes students’ second-language learning
  • Formal teaching of language structures
    best fosters the development and acquisition of a second language
  • Systematic and explicit instruction on language features best develops cognitive abilities in students’ second language
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Aiscorrectbecause sketching and discussing academic language as
    demonstrated by the teacher are research-based ways of making the text meaningful to the students. OptionBisincorrectbecause explicit instruction, not indirect instruction, is appropriate for ELLs in content instruction. OptionCis
    incorrectbecause formal teaching of language structure such as grammar and spelling rules are not demonstrated in the scenario, nor is this the best way for ELLs to acquire a second language. OptionDisincorrectbecause there is no instruction on language features occurring in the scenario.

    14. After Ms.
    Pua, a fifth-grade bilingual teacher, distributes an informative article in English to her class, one student says, “Teacher, the word ‘coast’ sounds like the Spanish word costa.” Before the class reads the article, Ms. Pua arranges the students in small groups and asks them to find and discuss the meaning of words that sound alike in English (L2) and Spanish (L1). Then she creates a chart to record each group’s findings. The activity best illustrates Ms. Pua’s understanding that

  • analyzing
    word parts such as root words and affixes facilitates acquisition and application of content knowledge.
  • providing high-interest reading selections motivates students to feel comfortable reading in L2.
  • making connections between the students’ L1 and L2 helps build vocabulary knowledge and supports reading comprehension.
  • modeling metacognitive strategies for students helps students apply the strategies in L1 and L2 activities.
  • Enter to expand or
    collapse answer.
    Answer expanded
    Option Ciscorrectbecause the teacher is having students build prior knowledge of a reading selection by identifying a correlation in an L1 cognate, in order to develop L2 vocabulary and text comprehension. OptionAis
    incorrectbecause the students are identifying cognates and not analyzing word parts such as root words and affixes. OptionBisincorrectbecause the scenario does not show the teacher specifically choosing high interest text. OptionD
    isincorrectbecause the teacher is not demonstrating a learning process or metacognition.

    15. A basic assumption underlying dual-language curriculum development and instruction is that students develop a first language through

  • imitation, reproducing language through approximate imitation of what they hear.
  • syntax, discovering the organizing principles of the language they are being
    exposed to.
  • hypothesis testing, finding rules in their language and testing them by applying the rules they have formulated.
  • language acquisition, developing grammar based on the linguistic input they receive.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Ciscorrectbecause students
    acquire first language primarily by finding rules in the language and testing the rules by applying them. The dual language curriculum is designed so students test what they know in their L1 and apply it to L2. OptionAisincorrectbecause the dual language curriculum is designed so students make connections across L1 and L2. If curriculum was developed purely
    through imitation, students would not take language risks in L2 to apply rules they know in L1. OptionsBandDareincorrectbecause they only focus on syntax and grammar, and students make sense of semantic and pragmatic systems of language as well.

    16. During a guided reading
    lesson, Lisbeth, a second-grade English-language learner whose native language is Spanish, stumbles over the word “restaurant.” Her teacher reminds her to think about what is happening in the story and suggests that she think of the word in Spanish, which is a cognate. Afterwards, Lisbeth successfully reads the word in English and continues reading the remainder of the text. In the scenario, the teacher encouraged Lisbeth to use her knowledge of her native language primarily to

  • facilitate
    comprehension.
  • increase student confidence.
  • develop structural analysis.
  • focus on context clues.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Aiscorrectbecause Lisbeth is applying her knowledge of a cognate of the English word “restaurant” so that she can better comprehend her
    reading assignment in English. OptionBisincorrectbecause the use of Spanish increases her comprehension, but may not increase confidence in reading; this is a secondary effect. OptionCisincorrectbecause she is not analyzing the
    word parts to understand the meaning as applicable in structural analysis. OptionDisincorrectbecause she is not using the surrounding text to comprehend unfamiliar words.

    Use the chart to answer the question that follows.

    The chart depicts the stages of language acquisition for English-language learners (ELLs).

    The chart has 5 horizontal boxes with an arrow inbetween each of them. The order is as follows: preproduction, production, emergence, fluency, fluency.

    17. A teacher is facilitating a reading-comprehension activity to elicit information about a story the students just read. Which of the following would be the
    most appropriate question for the teacher to ask ELLs in the early production stage?

  • “Why did the character evolve?”
  • “Where did you find the answer?”
  • “Was it a whale or a dolphin?”
  • “What do you think will happen next?”
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Ciscorrect
    because students in the early production stage are most successful when they can select from a choice provided by the teacher. OptionsAandBareincorrectbecause these questions would be more appropriate for students at the speech emergence level because they can produce simple sentences.
    OptionDisincorrectbecause this question is most appropriate for students at the intermediate fluency level who can explain with more details.

    18. After four months in the United States, Sal, a fifth grader, still rarely speaks in English (L2) in his bilingual class. In fact, he rarely speaks at all except in short sentences in his first language
    (L1) during one-on-one interactions with his teacher. The teacher has discussed the situation with Sal’s parents, who seem unconcerned and assure that Sal is also very quiet at home. Which of the following is the most appropriate step the teacher should take next regarding Sal?

  • Calling on Sal periodically during class discussions to provide him with an authentic context for speaking in front of his peers in L1 or English (L2)
  • Continuing to monitor Sal’s progress and
    acknowledging that there may be personal factors influencing his language performance in L1 and L2
  • Initiating L2 instruction with Sal that includes activities that require the use of L2 oral language
  • Regularly placing Sal in situations in which he must speak L1 and L2 in order to take part in activities he enjoys
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B is correct because students’
    achievement of a second language varies from student to student. A student’s personal issues also play a role in development of a second language. Therefore, the teacher monitoring the student is the best answer. OptionsA,CandDareincorrectbecause calling on the
    student periodically (option A), initiating English instruction (option C) and creating situations in which he must speak in L1 and L2 (option D) will all raise Sal’s affective filter; therefore, these options will decrease his ability to acquire and/or develop his language in L1 or L2.

    19. The following chart depicts the stages of language acquisition for ELLs.

    The chart has 5 horizontal boxes with an arrow inbetween each of them. The order is as follows: preproduction, production, emergence, fluency, fluency.

    Which of the following adaptations to the vocabulary map activity is the most appropriate for an ELL who is functioning at the preproduction stage of language development?

  • Modeling and explicitly correcting the ELL’s pronunciation of selected
    vocabulary words for the word map
  • Expanding on the ELL’s word map by adding adjectives
  • Exposing the ELL to additional words that will be added to the word map
  • Helping the ELL select the vocabulary words for the word map
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Discorrect
    because in helping select the vocabulary words for the word map, the teacher will select words that are appropriate for students at the preproduction stage. The teacher can select words that are true cognates in the ELL’s primary language which will help the ELLs complete the assignment. OptionAisincorrectbecause explicitly correcting pronunciation
    raises ELL’s affective filter. OptionsBandCareincorrectbecause adding adjectives (option B) and additional words (option C) are too advanced for an ELL at the preproduction.

    Competency 003—The beginning Bilingual Education teacher has comprehensive
    knowledge of the development and assessment of literacy in L1 and the development and assessment of biliteracy.

    20. Which of the following would best help English-language learners in a bilingual class improve their decoding of words with long and short/i/ vowel sounds in English (L2)?

  • Reviewing how the letter/i/ sounds in the students’ first language (L1), then teaching the sounds of the letter /i/ in L2
  • Having the students study the rules of how the long and short
    vowels can be spelled in L2
  • Comparing the rules of how the long and short vowels can be spelled in the students’ L1 and L2
  • Developing visual cues that show students when words have the long or short/i/ sound in L2
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Aiscorrectbecause ELLs will
    have greater success in decoding words with long and short “i” vowel sounds when they make the connection to the vowel sound they know in L1. OptionsBandDareincorrectbecause studying the rules for spelling long and short vowel sounds in L2 (option B) and developing visual cues for long or short
    “i” vowel sounds in L2 (option D) do not help students connect their prior knowledge of the “i” vowel sound from their L1. OptionCisincorrectbecause, although students are connecting their spelling knowledge of L1 and L2, they are not connecting the sounds from L1 to L2; therefore, ELLs will still struggle with decoding long and short “i” vowel sounds.

    21. Mr. Ramirez uses portfolio assessments with a high school science class that includes English-language learners (ELLs). Portfolios are particularly appropriate for ELLs because they are used to

  • guide teacher instruction based on standards not covered.
  • evaluate students and determine whether reteaching of content is necessary.
  • show the students their weaknesses in their English-language proficiency development.
  • demonstrate student growth over
    time through the use of multiple indicators.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption D is correct because portfolios are used to demonstrate student growth more fully through the use of multiple indicators. OptionsA,BandC
    areincorrectbecause portfolios are not used to guide teacher instruction based on standards not covered (option A), to reteach of content (portfolios are the final products) (option B) or used to showcase students’ weaknesses (option C).

    22. A kindergarten bilingual teacher wants to develop English-language learners’ (ELLs) phonemic awareness skills in their first language (L1), which is an alphabetic
    language. Which of the following literacy activities would be most effective to use for the teacher’s purpose?

  • Singing the alphabet tuy nhiên in L1 to ELLs while pointing to each letter on an L1 alphabet chart
  • Teaching ELLs to distinguish between pictures and print in books in L1 and environmental print
  • Playing rhyming games with ELLs in L1 and orally retelling stories that feature rhyming words in L1
  • Teaching ELLs alphabet games in L1 that involve recognizing and
    writing individual letters in L1
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Ciscorrectbecause phonemic awareness involves orally producing or manipulating letter sounds such as rhyming words. OptionsA,B
    andDareincorrectbecause pointing to the alphabet chart while singing the alphabet (option A), distinguishing between pictures and print in books (option B) and playing games to recognize and write letters (option D) all incorporate print and phonics; therefore, they are not related to phonemic awareness.

    23. In a high school social
    studies class, students are required to complete daily dialogue journals based on reading passages. A primary benefit of dialogue journal writing for English-language learners is that they

  • are instructed on the conventions of standard written language based on the errors found in their journal writing.
  • are provided with opportunities to improve their reading and writing skills by reading aloud their dialogue journals.
  • can receive more accurate grades on the writing
    abilities shown in their dialogue journals.
  • can take more risks in expressing their thoughts through journal writing than they can through oral expression.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption D is correct because journals provide a safe and private place to write, allowing ELLs a place to take risks that are necessary for them to take to develop fluency in their writing.
    OptionAisincorrectbecause, while a teacher may analyze the journal entry for language errors, the focus of dialogue journals is fluency. Students may be aware of the appropriate conventions but are not applying them in this type of writing. OptionBis
    incorrectbecause dialogue journals are not meant to be shared with classmates; in fact, sharing them with classmates will likely raise their affective filter. OptionCisincorrectbecause the dialogue journals are not meant to be formally assessed.

    24. A middle school teacher uses the following
    word-generation activity for a class that includes English-language learners (ELLs). The teacher writes the word “scribe” on the board and prompts the students to brainstorm all the words they can think of that contain “scribe.” The following are some of the students’ words.

    There are four boxes of
    equal length and size in a horizontal line. Each box has a word written in the center of it. The order of the words are as follows: prescribe, transcribe, scribble, subscribe.

    The teacher then asks the students to examine each word carefully and figure out what words containing “scribe” might mean by orally creating sentences that use the words. The class determines that “scribe” means “to write.” The teacher then revisits each word with the class to see if the meaning matches. The
    activity best helps the ELLs develop vocabulary by

  • categorizing new content vocabulary into groups predetermined by the teacher.
  • comprehending new content vocabulary through analysis.
  • taking language risks in a rich language environment.
  • self-selecting new vocabulary that is essential to understanding content-specific concepts.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption
    Biscorrectbecause ELLs examine each word and, through analysis, determine that scribe means “to write.” OptionAisincorrectbecause students are not categorizing the words. Also, they brainstormed the words, not the teacher.
    OptionCisincorrect because there is no evidence of risk taking in the scenario. OptionDisincorrectbecause there is no evidence of the vocabulary words being content specific in the scenario; rather, students are asked to brainstorm words that
    follow a pattern.

    25. A primary difference between English and Spanish literacy skill development is that Spanish literacy involves

  • the manipulation of individual phonemes within words.
  • several sounds associated with one vowel.
  • an emphasis on using individual syllables.
  • the production of onsets and rimes.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption
    Ciscorrectbecause Spanish language has a well-defined syllabic structure that depends on the syllable for literacy development. OptionAisincorrectbecause phonemes can be isolated in Spanish, but it is rarely done and not part of literacy instruction.
    OptionBisincorrectbecause vowels each have one sound in Spanish. OptionDisincorrectbecause identifying and producing onsets and rimes can be done in Spanish, but literacy instruction does not begin with onsets and rimes; rather
    it begins with the study of the syllabic structure.

    Use the graphic below to answer the question that follows.

    There are two levels of this diagram. The diagram begins with 3 boxes on the first or bottom layer, with the middle box being the starting point,
    which has a label of “Language Experience Approach” and has 3 arrows coming out of the left, top, and right sides of it’s outline. The left arrow is pointing to a box that has a label of “Language tasks are integrated”. The top arrow is pointing to a box that has a label of “Learner-generated materials are used”. And the right arrow is pointing to a box that is blank, or has no label.

    26. Which of the following is an aspect of the language experience approach that correctly completes the
    graphic?

  • Lessons are most suitable for use with advanced-level language learners
  • Learners determine the difficulty level of the vocabulary and grammar
  • Lessons progress from unknown contexts to familiar contexts
  • Learners facilitate whole-group discussions
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Bis
    correctbecause in the language experience approach, the learner describes his or her experience and, therefore, determines the vocabulary and grammar. OptionAisincorrectbecause the approach is actually suitable for all language learners. OptionC
    isincorrectbecause the lesson begins with the students’ experiences; therefore, the context is known, not unknown. OptionDisincorrectbecause the teachers lead and stimulate discussions.

    27. Which of the following is true according to Cummins’ common underlying
    proficiency (CUP) section of the “dual-iceberg” model in relation to English-language learners’ (ELLs) first (L1) and second language (L2)?

  • ELLs have difficulty transferring content knowledge from L1 to L2
  • ELLs have cognitive academic skills that are readily used in both L1 and L2
  • ELLs’ previous schooling in L1 has little to no effect on academic performance in L2
  • ELLs show success in L2 academic tasks only when they have mastered basic interpersonal
    communication skills in L1
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B is correct because according to Cummins, the two languages used by a bilingual student appear to be separate on the surface, but in reality, the student is operating under one system for both languages. Hence, what a student knows in one language can be readily applied to another language. Option
    Aisincorrectbecause, according to Cummins, students can transfer the content knowledge from L1 to L2. OptionCisincorrectbecause CUP doesn’t take academic performance into account. OptionD
    isincorrectbecause BICS are not related to Cummins theory.

    28. The Texas Education Agency has adopted language-level descriptors and expectations for English-language learners to replace the English as a Second Language (ESL) standards. School districts are required to implement these expectations as an integral part of the curriculum across all content areas and content teachers should use the standards
    to guide instruction. The expectations are known as the

  • Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS).
  • English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS).
  • Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS).
  • Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE).
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B
    iscorrectbecause the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) are the state curriculum for English-language learners to be used alongside the TEKS in all content areas, not only in bilingual or ESL classrooms. OptionAisincorrectbecause the TEKS are the state curriculum for all
    students. OptionCisincorrectbecause the TELPAS measures the academic progress of Limited English Proficient (LEP) students. OptionDisincorrectbecause the SDAIE is a teaching approach, not language descriptors or expectations.

    Competency 004—The beginning Bilingual Education teacher has comprehensive knowledge of content area instruction in L1 and L2 and uses this knowledge to promote bilingual students’ academic achievement across the curriculum.

    29. Mr. Lopez teaches at a dual-language immersion school in which science classes are taught in English. An English-language learner in the class, Raisha, currently functions at a beginning level of English proficiency. To best
    assist Raisha’s comprehension during instruction, Mr. Lopez should

  • provide her with graphic organizers to use when taking notes or communicating ideas.
  • assign her a peer tutor to simultaneously translate the class lectures.
  • direct her to express ideas in her native language until she masters the unit concepts.
  • instruct her to write a summary of critical concepts at the end of each lesson.
  • Enter to expand or collapse
    answer.
    Answer expanded
    Option Aiscorrectbecause the graphic organizer would best increase the comprehensible input of the lesson. OptionBisincorrectbecause asking another student to translate a lesson
    simultaneously is not best practice and it wouldn’t help develop Raisha’s English comprehension. OptionCisincorrectbecause asking her to use her native language to express her ideas wouldn’t increase her comprehension of the lesson. OptionDis
    incorrectbecause writing a summary is an assessment for a student at the intermediate level of English proficiency, not beginning level.

    30. The following daily instructional objective is posted on the board of a science class.

    Content Objective: Students will interpret data relative to moving objects and produce a motion graph.

    Which of the following additional pieces of information would the teacher need to post
    alongside the content objective in order to meet the criteria of sheltered instruction?

  • A description of the cooperative learning activity students will engage in as part of the content objective
  • A list of vocabulary words that students will learn or review during the lesson
  • A language objective that will be used to focus on developing student vocabulary
  • A description in the lesson plan of how the teacher will modify language to increase student comprehension
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Ciscorrectbecause language objectives are an essential and explicit component of sheltered instruction and must be included to meet the criteria of sheltered instruction. OptionsA,
    BandDareincorrectbecause while including cooperative learning activities (option A), lists of vocabulary words that students will learn (option B) and descriptions of modifications (option D) are all helpful for instruction and planning, they are not essential to meet the criteria of sheltered instruction.

    31. English-language learners (ELLs) in a second-grade class are beginning an interdisciplinary unit about plants. To help the ELLs monitor their own learning during the unit, it would be most effective for the teacher to

  • provide them with a checklist of all the activities in the unit and encourage them to mark off each activity as it is completed.
  • encourage them to keep all of their unit work in a thư mục and keep a record of each grade or teacher comment on the inside
    cover.
  • help them develop a learning log in which they write what they know about plants and then verify their understandings throughout the unit.
  • teach them how to use reference materials about plants and then encourage them to correct their own errors on unit work.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Cis
    correctbecause students are practicing an important self-monitoring skill by first recording their assertions of what they know and then building upon their personal understandings based on their work in the unit. Personal reflection is an important self- monitoring skill. OptionsAandBare
    incorrectbecause while completing checklists and keeping work in a thư mục are excellent ways to ensure completion and organization of work, they do not ensure that ELLs are self-monitoring their learning. OptionDisincorrectbecause having students correct their work based on reference materials is not a way for students
    to monitor their learning; rather, it is a way for them to confirm facts.

    32. Mr. Ullah, a bilingual teacher, helps English-language learners (ELLs) make a list of questions to guide and improve their writing. He then encourages them to develop the habit of referring to the questions during the writing process. The following are some examples of the questions.

    Mr. Ullah’s
    approach is benefitting the ELLs primarily by developing their ability to

  • work independently to improve their writing skills.
  • adjust the reading level of their finished written work.
  • assess their writing progress over the course of the year.
  • self-correct their written mistakes.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption A
    iscorrectbecause answering the questions will likely provide ELLs with ways to ensure that their writing is clear and targeting the right audience. OptionsB,CandDareincorrectbecause the
    questions are not associated with adjustment of reading level (option B), assessing writing progress over time (option C) or correct writing conventions (option D).

    33. Which of the following social studies activities would be most appropriate for English-language learners who are reading and speaking at the intermediate language proficiency level in English?

  • Drawing individual family portraits and naming the people in them
  • Participating in a guided discussion
    about community helpers and reading a passage about them
  • Creating a model of a neighborhood out of small cardboard boxes with labels identifying a school, a town hall and other community buildings
  • Making a collage from magazine pictures of various forms of transportation and reading passages about them
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption B
    iscorrectbecause ELLs at the intermediate level of reading and speaking can participate in a guided discussion and comprehend a passage about community workers. Both of these activities would help develop ELLs reading and speaking skills. OptionsA,CandD
    areincorrectbecause creating drawings and naming the people in them (option A), creating models with labels (option C) and making collages and reading passages about them (option D) do not help develop the ELLs’ skills in reading and speaking.

    34. English-language learners (ELLs) are practicing money calculations in mathematics lessons in their primary language and learning food names in English
    language-arts lessons. Which of the following activities would best integrate the ELLs’ English language- arts development with their content-area development?

  • The ELLs make a list in English of foods they would like to buy and use a price list to determine how much of each type of food they can buy with ten dollars
  • The teacher takes the ELLs on a field trip to a supermarket and has them fill in the prices of several different foods on a checklist written in English
  • The
    ELLs search through English supermarket flyers to cut out advertisements and create a visual display of the foods they like best and their prices
  • The teacher creates worksheets with story problems written in English in which the ELLs must determine the totals and correct change owed for various food purchases
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption A
    iscorrectbecause the teacher is integrating language and content instruction for ELLs. The activity includes English-language development by listing the foods in English and content-based mathematics objectives with money calculations. OptionsB,CandD
    areincorrectbecause, while filling in price lists (option B), cutting out supermarket flyers with prices (option C) and answering story problems related to food purchases (option D) are good activities related to food and money, they each lack an element to appropriately integrate bothlanguage arts and mathematics content-area development.

    35. A social studies class,
    including English-language learners (ELLs) at varying levels of English-language proficiency, is analyzing the reasons for the colonization of North America. The lesson plan states that students will read the colonization of North America sections in their social studies text and independently complete a time line detailing the establishment of the thirteen colonies. Which of the following instructional activities is most beneficial in helping ELLs build background knowledge prior to the
    assignment?

  • The teacher presents a slide show that depicts critical events and life in the colonies
  • Students create dioramas that depict critical events in establishing the colonies and share them with the class
  • The teacher provides students with a brief lecture of the colonies supplemented with maps
  • Students work in cooperative groups to complete a concept map detailing what they already know about the colonies
  • Enter to expand or
    collapse answer.
    Answer expanded
    OptionAiscorrectbecause the visual of the slides of the critical events will specifically help ELLs at all language proficiency levels comprehend the details of the establishment of the colonies. OptionB
    isincorrectbecause students can create dioramas once they have background knowledge, but not prior to understanding and/or having knowledge of the colonies. OptionCisincorrectbecause not all levels of ELLs would comprehend the details of the establishment of the colonies in a brief
    lecture. The map would give them a visual of the colonies but will not provide them the details of their establishment. OptionDisincorrectbecause the concept map assesses what ELLs already know about the colonies; it doesn’t provide them with background knowledge.

    36. Students can most effectively reinforce their acquisition of a new vocabulary
    word by doing which of the following?

  • Studying the etymology of the new word
  • Identifying the part of speech of the new word
  • Using various forms of the new word in sentences
  • Locating several synonyms of the new word in a thesaurus
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Cis
    correctbecause students are using the new word in sentences, which helps students apply their understanding of the word; application leads to eventual acquisition of the word. OptionsA,BandDareincorrectbecause, while
    learning the etymology of a new word (option A), identifying the word’s part of speech (option B) and locating synonyms of the word (option D) will provide more information, they do not require students to use the word which best promotes acquisition.

    37. English-language learners (ELLs) will be working in cooperative-learning groups to complete an end of a unit content-area project in English. Before the ELLs meet for the first time with their group, the teacher asks them to jot
    down in English everything they know about the project’s topic. Afterward, they meet with their group with their paper in hand to use as a reference. The note-taking activity helps the ELLs work more effectively with the content primarily because it

  • prepares them to discuss the content in English.
  • allows them to lower their affective filter.
  • provides a preview of the content vocabulary in English.
  • incorporates authentic language use.
  • Enter
    to expand or collapse answer.
    Answer expanded
    Option A is correct because the note-taking activity primarily helps activate ELLs’ content knowledge from the unit. They will be prepared to discuss what they know in their groups because they are writing down what they know about the topic using their knowledge of the unit. OptionBis
    incorrectbecause ELLs are not consciously aware of their affective filter. The ELLs affective filter will be lowered because they are able to discuss the content, but lowering the affective filter is not the primary purpose of the note-taking activity. OptionCisincorrectbecause the ELLs are not previewing vocabulary if
    they write down vocabulary that is from their knowledge of the unit. Previewing vocabulary is done before units of study to increase comprehensible input. OptionDisincorrectbecause the note-taking activity is not primarily using language authentically; the discussion in their small groups allows students to use language in a more authentic manner.

    Multiple-Competencies Passages

    Questions 38–40 refer to the following information.

    Ms. Rodriguez uses a variety of word maps to introduce and expand students’ content vocabulary in her fifth-grade social studies class, which includes varying levels of English-language learners (ELLs). The student objectives during the vocabulary activity are listed below.

    Content objective: Students will identify and analyze new
    vocabulary words.

    Language objective: Students will explain the new vocabulary words in groups.

    She begins by organizing the students into heterogeneous study groups and assigning each group a prereading activity to be used with the social studies textbook. As they read in their groups, the students must create a list of target words to define and later discuss as a group.

    As a follow-up activity, Ms. Rodriguez has the students complete vocabulary maps with the targeted words
    as illustrated below. Finally, the students share their maps with the whole class.

    The following is an example of a word map completed by an ELL.

    Competency 004—The beginning Bilingual Education teacher has comprehensive knowledge of content area instruction in L1 and L2 and uses this knowledge to promote bilingual students’ academic achievement across the curriculum.

    38. Which of the following part of the word map is most likely to
    help the ELLs internalize the new vocabulary word?

  • Part 2
  • Part 3
  • Part 4
  • Part 6
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer expandedOption Discorrectbecause internalizing the vocabulary words will most likely happen during Step 6 in which students make a personal connection to the
    new word by using the word in a sentence. OptionsA,BandCareincorrectbecause writing a definition (option A), synonym (option B) and antonym (option C) of the word might provide background; however, the activities do not help students internalize and apply the
    new word.

    39. The collaborative activity Ms. Rodriguez assigned is fulfilling the language objective primarily because it gives the ELLs the opportunity to

  • interact socially with their classmates.
  • experience motivation that comes with working in teams.
  • practice English as a means of expressing their ideas.
  • assess their own English proficiency as compared with that of their peers.
  • Enter to expand or collapse
    answer.
    Answer expanded
    Option Ciscorrectbecause the collaborative activity involves choosing the words to discuss, which involves expressing their ideas about the new vocabulary which reflects the language objective. OptionAis
    incorrectbecause students are interacting about instructional content, not socially. OptionBisincorrectbecause the goal for the collaboration is not to increase motivation; the goal is to provide an opportunity for discussion. OptionD
    isincorrectbecause students are not evaluating their proficiency levels in the collaborative work, nor is this an appropriate task for students.Competency 002—The beginning Bilingual Education teacher understands processes of first- and second-language acquisition and development and applies this knowledge to promote students’ language proficiency in their first language (L1) and second language
    (L2).

    40. The word map used in this lesson best helps ELLs to develop their vocabulary skills through

  • identifying relationships between newly learned words and familiar words.
  • applying effective prereading strategies in scanning an unfamiliar text.
  • facilitating translation of texts into their native languages.
  • using mnemonic devices that link word forms to their meanings.
  • Enter to expand or collapse answer.Answer
    expanded
    Option A is correct because the word map allows students to discern similarities and differences among words and create links to known words in their primary language. OptionBisincorrectbecause word maps are not part of scanning unfamiliar texts. Option
    Cisincorrectbecause students are not participating in any translation activities. OptionDisincorrectbecause students are not applying memory-based mnemonic devices in the word-map activity.

    What is the teachers role in motivating students?

    Teachers play a vital role in creating an environment that supports students’ learning. They often do this through their tư vấn for students’ autonomy. By supporting students’ choices and interests, teachers help students develop personal interest, involvement, and ownership of their work, which aid in motivation.

    What is the role of motivation in engaging the learners in the teaching/learning process?

    Motivated students are much more likely to achieve their potential and find success. Motivation is an essential ingredient in effective teaching and learning. It not only yields more positive behaviour in students, but it also contributes to a greater sense of wellbeing.

    What is the role of motivation in education?

    Motivation helps in focusing on goals and initiates to develop the learning abilities. Motivation is the tool to bring effectiveness in the teaching learning process. Thus, motivation is the way of achieving the desired goals in the life and enhances the abilities to do what we want to do.
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